Consolidation principles

The financial statements of German and foreign subsidiaries included in the consolidated accounts are prepared using uniform accounting and measurement methods as required by 10 (Consolidated Financial Statements).

Subsidiaries that, unlike METRO AG, do not close their financial year on 30 September prepared interim financial statements for consolidation purposes. In principle, subsidiaries are fully consolidated insofar as their consolidation is of material importance to the provision of a true and fair view of the asset, financial and earnings position.

In accordance with IFRS 3 (Business Combinations), capital consolidation is effected using the purchase method. In the case of business combinations, the carrying amounts of the investments are offset against the revalued pro rata equity of the subsidiaries as of their acquisition dates. Any positive differences remaining after the allocation of hidden reserves and liabilities are capitalised as goodwill. Goodwill is tested for impairment regularly once a year.

In addition, in the case of company acquisitions, hidden reserves and liabilities attributable to non-controlling interests are disclosed and recognised in equity as non-controlling interests.

In accordance with IFRS 3, any negative differences remaining after the allocation of hidden reserves and liabilities as well as after a reassessment during the period in which the business combination took place are recognised through profit or loss.

Acquisitions of additional equity interests in companies where a controlling interest has already been acquired are recognised as equity transactions.

Investments in associates and joint ventures are accounted for using the equity method and treated in accordance with the principles applying to full consolidation, with existing goodwill being included in the amount capitalised for such investments. The disclosure of income from investments in associates, joint ventures and joint operations in the income statement depends on whether the investee carries out operating or non-operating activities. Operational activities include the wholesale businesses as well as related support activities (for example rent/lease of real estate, procurement, logistics). Income from operating associates, joint ventures and joint operations is recognised in earnings before interest and taxes (); income from non-operating entities is however recognised in the net financial result.

Any deviating accounting and measurement methods used in the financial statements of entities accounted for by applying the equity method are retained as long as they do not substantially contradict METRO’s uniform accounting and measurement methods.

According to IFRS 11 (Joint Arrangements), the individual venturers in joint operations recognise their portion of jointly held assets and jointly incurred liabilities in their own balance sheets.

Intra-group sales, expenses and income or profits and losses as well as receivables and liabilities and/or provisions are eliminated. Intercompany results in fixed assets or inventories resulting from intra-group transactions are eliminated unless they are of minor significance. In accordance with IAS 12 (Income Taxes), deferred taxes are recognised for consolidation procedures.

Unrealised gains from transactions with companies accounted for using the equity method are recognised as a reduction of the carrying amount of the investment in the amount of the group’s share of the profit.

In joint arrangements, all venturers recognise the respective portion of sales attributable to them as well as their own income and expenses resulting from the joint arrangement in their income statement.

If a reduction in the shareholding quota in a subsidiary or the complete disposal of the shares entails a loss of control, full consolidation of the subsidiary is terminated when control no longer exists. All assets and liabilities that were previously fully consolidated will then be derecognised at amortised group carrying amounts (deconsolidation). Any investments held after the loss of control are recognised at as a financial instrument according to IFRS 9 or as an investment according to IAS 28 using the equity method.

IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards)
Internationally applicable rules for financial reporting developed by the IASB. Contrary to the accounting rules under the German Commercial Code, the IFRS emphasise the informational function.
EBIT (Earnings Before Interest and Taxes)
Profit or loss before financial result and (income) taxes. Due to its independence from different forms of financing and tax systems, this key figure is also used for international comparison with other companies, among other things.
Fair value
Recognised fair value that would be received in return for the disposal of an asset or paid for the assignment of a debt in an ordinary transaction conducted between market participants on the assessment date.