Recognition of income and expenses
Net sales are recognised in accordance with IFRS 15 (Revenue from Contracts with Customers) when the respective performance obligations have been met by transferring goods to wholesale customers or providing services. The goods are deemed to have been transferred at the time at which the customer gains control over them. This applies to store-based retail and wholesale as well as to the delivery business (Food Service Distribution, FSD). In these cases, cash payment or payment within a short time after delivery of the product (credit purchase) is usually agreed with the customer. Significant financing components are usually not included in the contracts with customers. For services, control over the services is transferred over time, thus fulfilling the performance obligation. Revenue is recognised in the amount of the consideration received or expected to be received in exchange for the goods or services.
Under certain wholesale business models, METRO customers are granted the right to exchange or return goods under certain conditions or in accordance with contractual agreements or on a legal basis. Refund liabilities that are based on empirical data regarding return quotas and periods are recorded for expected returns in this context. Assets for the right to recover products from a customer, on settling these refund liabilities, are measured at the initial carrying amount of the respective inventories (less settlement costs and any indicated impairment) and reported under ‘other assets’.
METRO grants various types of standardised, performance-based rebates if certain predefined conditions are met. Examples include rebates for achieving certain sales volumes with a customer and for customer loyalty. As soon as it can be assumed that a customer fulfils the conditions for granting the rebate, a portion of the revenue is deferred and recognised as a contract liability. Such contract liabilities are derecognised when the rebate is redeemed by the customer or when the probability that the customer will enforce its rights is remote. The rebates are regularly redeemed by customers within one year of the respective recognition of a contract liability.
Some of the franchise models offered by METRO include multi-component contracts with customers being offered a bundle of different franchise products and services. Individual contractual components are made available to customers in subsidised form, so that the entire agreed consideration is allocated to the individual components in accordance with the relative stand-alone selling prices.
In some cases, METRO acts as an agent for the delivery of goods or the provision of services. In these cases, METRO recognises the expected fee or commission as revenue.
Operating expenses are recognised as expenses upon utilisation of the service or on the date of their causation.
METRO’s financial result consists primarily of interest income and expenses. Interest is recognised as income or expenses and, where applicable, on an accrual basis using the effective interest method. Interest on borrowing that is directly attributable to the acquisition or production of a so-called qualified asset represent an exception, as they must be included in the acquisition or production costs of the asset capitalised pursuant to IAS 23 (Borrowing Costs). Dividends paid by companies in which METRO holds an interest and which are not accounted for using the equity method are generally recognised as income when the legal claim to payment arises.
Income taxes concern direct taxes on income and deferred taxes. As a general rule, they are recognised through profit or loss unless they are related to business combinations or an item that is directly recognised in equity or other comprehensive income.